94:413-420. Perrin, R.K., K.P. Table 2. Lee, D.K., V.N. Vogel and Masters (2001) reported a stand frequency of 50% or greater (two or more switchgrass plants per square foot) indicated a successful stand, whereas stand frequency from 25 to 50% was marginal to adequate, and stands with less than 25% frequency indicated a partial stand. 2008. Agron. There are major challenges to using switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol (Mitchell et al., 2008). Univ. Sanderson, W.R. Ocumpaugh, R.M. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program selected switchgrass as the herbaceous model species for biomass energy. Biomass and Bioenergy 20:413-419. Applying 8 oz of quinclorac plus 1 qt of atrazine per acre immediately after planting has provided effective grassy and broadleaf weed control for establishment. An ethanol plant requires a reliable and consistent feedstock supply. mended treatment of soaking the switch - grass seed for 24 hours and chilling the seed for 28 days resulted in improved germination 2 to 8 times greater than the . However, producers with experience growing switchgrass had five-year average costs of $43/ton, and one producer grew switchgrass for $38/ton. There is large potential for achieving all of these benefits, provided agronomic, genomic, and operational aspects of perennial herbaceous cropping systems are fully developed and accepted by farmers. There is considerable variation in plant type. Wolf. Wrapping big round bales with at least three wraps of net-wrap maintains the structure of the bale and reduces the surface area of the bale that contacts the ground. Recently, switchgrass has been identified as a model perennial grass â¦ Seed production of native grasses. Maximizing yield currently is the primary objective when harvesting biomass feedstocks. Dormant season harvests after a killing frost will not damage switchgrass stands but will reduce the amount of snow captured during winter. However, the broad genetic diversity available to switchgrass breeders, the initial pathogen screening conducted during cultivar development, and the fact that switchgrass has been a native component of central U.S. grasslands for centuries will likely limit the negative pest issues. Growing switchgrass must be profitable for the producer, it must fit into existing farming operations, it must be easy to store and deliver to the ethanol plant, and extension efforts must be provided to inform producers on the agronomics and best management practices for specific regions, all of which have been addressed for switchgrass. 71:155-162. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. Proc. Soybean stubble provides an excellent seedbed for no-till seeding switchgrass. %PDF-1.5 %âãÏÓ NE 28 was a release in 1949 from the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station by L.C. Planting a switchgrass cultivar south of its origin area results in less biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too early. 46:712-720. %%EOF Moser et al., eds. Photo: Dennis Pennington. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Switchgrass has distinct lowland and upland ecotypes. Muir, J.P., M.A. Sanderson, A.A. Boeteng, P.J. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). The soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam which was fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs. Adler, P.R., M.A. Grazing was initiated about 9 July and continued for 42 days on big bluestem, 38 days on sideoats grama, 33 days on Nebraska 28 switchgrass, and 31 days on indiangrass and Summer switchgrass. Fales, eds. Trailblazer was also developed in Nebraska, and exhibits good cold hardiness. Results of a recent economic study based on the five-year average of 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota indicated producers can grow switchgrass at a farm gate cost of $60/ton (Perrin et al., 2008). Soil carbon storage by switchgrass grown for bioenergy. Bransby. Growing seed to meet potential demand for bioenergy will not be an issue. 28 likes. A good variety for grazing. 1992. There must be an available land base in the local agricultural landscape to produce feedstock. 1#/acre provides 9 seeds/ft2. Holds â¦ In: W.F. Phosphorus (P) recommendations for the western corn belt based on two common soil test levels (Anderson and Shapiro, 1990). (Released 1949, source of ecotype: Holt County, NE) Blackwell. Agron. 2008. 2008. With good weed management and favorable precipitation, a crop equal to about half of potential production can be harvested after frost at the end of the planting year, with 75 to 100% of full production achieved the year after planting. Dacotah and ND 3743 contained the highest neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations at both sites while Cave-in-Rock had the lowest ( P < 0.05) (Table 6 ). Northern Nebraska 42° 162 Pangburn lowland Tetraploid Arkansas 34° 96 Pathfinder upland Octoploid Nebraska / Kansas 40° 187 REAP 921 upland Tetraploid Southern Nebraska 41° 90 Shelter = NY4006 mixed? Figure 4. Weyers. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass that is a leading biomass crop in the United States. Nebraska 28 is the same as any of the other tall grass switch varieties. 2001. Jung. Sanderson, M.A., R. Reed, S. McLaughlin, S. Wullschleger, B. Conger, D. Parrish, D. Wolf, C. Taliaferro, A. Hopkins, W. Ocumpaugh, M. Hussey, J. Covering big round bales stored outside can reduce dry matter loss to less than 3% in six months. 130 pages. Áì(Å,ÒfwÙ¾`A$X%GX¤ D² ³Á²Ö`[6HÎ|é»,¢ Established seed production fields can produce 500 to 1,000 pounds of seed per acre with irrigation, and the seed is easily threshed, cleaned, and planted with commercial planting equipment. Fike et al., 2006b, Harvest date and N rate effects on biomass, persistence, species composition, and soil organic carbon of switchgrass-dominated CRP, Mulkey et al., 2006 Can. This research from nearly 50 production environments indicates that growing switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol is economically feasible in the central and northern Great Plains. At 5 DM tons/acre, a commonly-achieved yield with available forage cultivars, only 10% of the land would be needed for feedstock production and is feasible in most agricultural areas. 2005. 1998. Evaluating the environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy. The pH of the soil was 6.0. Varvel, G.E., K.P. 28 Switch grass. 2005. Tilman, D., J. Hill, and C. Lehman. Switchgrass cultivars âPathfinderâ, âBlackwellâ, and âNebraska 28â were hexaploids (2n = 54), while âSummerâ and âKanlowâ were tetraploids (2n = 36). for producing food and feed, or on lands currently enrolled in conservation programs. Assuming a 50-million-gallon per year cellulosic ethanol plant requires 625,000 tons of feedstock per year, if feedstock yield is 1.75 DM tons/acre, 28% of the land would need to grow the feedstock, and this is not feasible in most agricultural areas. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: Vogel, K.P., J.J. Brejda, D. T. Walters, D.R. Vogel, and G. Sarath. Warm-season (C4) Grasses. Weed control is essential during establishment but with good management is typically not required again. Switchgrass is adapted to a wide range of habitats and climates and has few major insect or disease pests. âNebraska 28â Cultivar plant materials is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for â¦ Garten Jr., L.R. Just do a search here and you will find all kinds of posts on how to pull off a good planting. Many farmers prefer Switchgrass to other varieties of native grasses because of the harâ¦ In addition to potential bioenergy production, switchgrass uses include pasture and hay production, soil and water conservation, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat. Germination of switchgrass under various temperature and pH regimes. Apply N at switchgrass green-up to minimize cool-season weed competition. Growing switchgrass on marginal sites likely will enhance ecosystem services more rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites. Row spacing for switchgrass is typically 7.5 to 10 inches. Biofuels, Bioproducts, & Biorefining 2:530-539. Nebraska 28 upland ? Moser et al., eds. These costs include all expenses plus land costs and labor at $10/hour. Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. Weed competition is the major reason for switchgrass stand failure. 2002. 27:203-210. Recommended P levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1. 1950. The effect of switchgrass residue on associated weed growth was also studied. However, seed viability was not significantly (P 0.05) different for the cultivated varieties of switchgrass and Northern populations; but was significantly lower for Southern Iowa populations in 2002. During the establishment year, all harvests must occur after a killing frost to avoid damaging stands. Frequency grid – A simple tool for measuring grassland establishment. 2007. Historically, breeding and genetics research has been conducted at a limited number of locations by USDA and university scientists, but the potential bioenergy market has promoted testing by public and private entities throughout the United States. Owens, and D.K. Dacotah, Forestbury, Nebraska 28, Summer, Sunburst, and ND 3743 switchgrasses maintained stand density in 1995 and showed little or no decline in stand density in 1996. Switchgrass. pp. J. Long-term plot trials and farm-scale studies in the Great Plains and plot trials in the Great Plains, Midwest, South, and Southeast indicate switchgrass is productive, protective of the environment, and profitable for the farmer. Switchgrass has high yield potential on marginal cropland and will be productive in most rain-fed production systems east of the 100th meridian (Vogel, 2004). 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. Cornelius, D.R. In some cases, cool-season grasses may invade switchgrass stands and reduce yield. Sci. Biomass yield and quality of 20 switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and coastal panic grass ... (P>0.05) greater number of stems than the others, except compared to Nebraska 28 in 1996. Owens, and J.J. Doolittle. Switchgrass has been used widely throughout the Great Plains and Midwest for pasture and conservation purposes for decades, and no invasive problems have developed or been identified. Switchgrass is well suited to marginal cropland and is an energetically and economically feasible and sustainable biomass energy crop with currently available technology. Planting & Managing Switchgrass | 2009 5 Sunburst, Trailblazer and Blackwell are well-known upland varieties identiï¬ed for bioenergy use, based on their region of adaptation and performance. Buxton. Spring applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 can be used to control cool-season grasses in established switchgrass stands. Switchgrass is readily established when quality seed of an adapted cultivar is used with the proper planting date, seeding rate, seeding method, and weed control. More than 70 years of experience with switchgrass as a hay and forage crop suggest switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginal land east of the 100th meridian. The seed was a new release from the Agricultural Experiment Station called "Nebraska 28 Switchgrass". Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. An early-maturing strain representative of Nebraska Sandhill types. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program, Biofuels Cropping Systems Research and Extension, Washington State University, http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/live/g1908/build/g1908.pdf, CenUSA Resources – Sustainable Production and Distribution of Bioenergy for the Central USA, Economic Potential of Switchgrass as a Biofuel Crop in Florida, USDA-ARS Grain, Forage, and Bioenergy Research Unit, USDA-ARS Northern Great Plains Research Lab, Energy Answers for the Beginning Farmer and Rancher, NEWBio Team Defines Human Systems Driving the Bioeconomy Transition, NEWBio Harvest, Preprocessing, and Logistics Team Optimizes Biomass Supply Chain Processes, NEWBio Feedstock Improvement Team Breeds Better Switchgrass and Willow for the Bioeconomy. McLaughlin, S.B., D.G. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer is not recommended during the planting year since N will encourage weed growth, increase competition for establishing seedlings, increase establishment cost, and increase economic risk associated with establishment if stands should fail (Mitchell et al., 2008). 2001. 48:2159-2164. endstream endobj 130 0 obj <. However, perennial herbaceous energy crops have potential for improvement, and they present a unique opportunity for cultural change on the agricultural landscape. Thus, yield data comparing forage-type upland cultivars like Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, Summer, and Trailblazer do not capture the full yield potential of switchgrass and are not fair comparisons. In the central Great Plains, switchgrass can be planted two or three weeks before to two or three weeks after the recommended planting dates for corn (Zea mays), typically from late April to early June. Switchgrass varieties for western Nevada. Dacotah (98%) and ND 3743 switchgrasses (92%), in particular, maintained nearly complete stands in 1996. However, they noted that SOC increases varied across sites, and the variation in SOC change reiterated the importance of long-term environmental monitoring sites in major agro-ecoregions. The warm season native grass allowed my father to act on his strong commitment to soil conservation and to diversify his traditional corn and livestock farm. Most pathogen issues cannot be fully realized until large areas are planted to switchgrass. Switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics, and other factors. Thesis, Univ. Nebraska 28 NE AES, ARS, NRCS Lincoln NE 1935 Holt County, NE 42 Pathï¬nder NE AES, ARS Lincoln NE 1953 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 Summer SD AES Brookings SD 1953 Nebraska City, NE 41 Sunburst U. of South Dakota 1998 Union County, SD 43 ND 3743 NRCS Bismarck ND â Upham, ND 49 Trailblazer ARS, U. of Nebraska 1984 Sites in NE and KS 37 to 43 1Low-input, high-diversity human-made prairies (Tilman et al., 2006).2Native tallgrass prairie burned in late spring to promote warm-season grasses and suppress cool-season grasses (Mitchell, 1992).3Shawnee is an upland forage-type switchgrass cultivar released in 1995.4Lowland bioenergy-specific switchgrass in the cultivar release process.5F1 hybrid of Summer and Kanlow switchgrass that will likely reach field-scale production in less than 10 years (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). 93:896-901. 2008. Vogel, K.P. J. W eed density and biomass under each. Mitchell, R.B., K.P. Managing and enhancing switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. Warm-season grasses produce 70 to 80 percent of their growth after June 1 in Nebraska, while more than 75 percent of cool-season grass growth, such as bromegrass and bluegrass, often occurs before June 1. 6 ), which seemed to be the cultivars with drought tolerance due to their high WUE  .Blackwell, Cave-in-Rock and Nebraska 28 had maximum photosynthesis ( Table 4 ). Management of switchgrass-dominated Conservation Reserve Program lands for biomass production in South Dakota. Lemus, R., E.C. Schmer, M.R., K.P. A stable and consistent feedstock supply must be available year-round to the ethanol or power plant. Ecol. Molstad, C.L. It stabilizes soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other critical areas. Biomass and Bioenergy 14:317-324. Vogel, K.P., and R.B. Reported dry matter (DM) yield, acres required to grow 625,000 tons of dry matter per year, and the percent of the land base required to provide feedstock for a 50-million-gallon cellulosic ethanol plant for different herbaceous perennial feedstocks in the Great Plains and Midwest. 1990. Liebig, M.A., M.R. Fike, J., D. Parrish, D. Wolf, J. Balasko, J. Numerous studies have reported that switchgrass will protect soil, water, and air quality; provide fully sustainable production systems; sequester C; create wildlife habitat; increase landscape and biological diversity; return marginal farmland to production; and increase farm revenues (McLaughlin and Walsh, 1998; McLaughlin et al., 2002). Vogel, R.B. Each big round bale (Photo 4) represents 50 gallons of ethanol assuming 80 gallons per ton of switchgrass, with a farm gate cost of $0.75/gallon at $60/ton. Rotary head mowers (disc mowers) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis. 20:1-27. QTL analyses results for bio-fuel traits will also be discussed. forage during summer. Image: Figure 2. It is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but will grow under wide range of climatic conditions. Delaying harvest until spring will reduce moisture and ash contents, but yield loss can be as high as 40% compared with a fall harvest (Adler et al., 2006). Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. 155 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<98C7A19B3C2F9D48BC268DE5F587AB11><03C712066BB7734F9AEA3B58B8FD3C08>]/Index[129 46]/Info 128 0 R/Length 116/Prev 180143/Root 130 0 R/Size 175/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream M.S. This example reinforces the importance of high DM yield to the agricultural feasibility of cellulosic ethanol, not to mention the inability of the producer to profit by growing low-yielding energy crops. The most cost-effective method to control broadleaf weeds in switchgrass fields during the establishment year is to apply 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1 after switchgrass seedlings have about four leaves. Switchgrass root density in the surface 6 inches is two-fold greater than alfalfa, more than three-fold greater than corn, and more than an order of magnitude greater than soybean (Johnson et al., 2007). Mitchell, R.B. When planting maintain a clean and firm seedbed using covering chains or packing wheels to ensure good soil-seed contact for rapid germination. A majority of the switchgrass likely will be grown on marginal lands that have suboptimal characteristics (i.e., slope, soil depth, etc.) Schmer, K.P. Prices listed are based on pure live seed weight, â¦ Casler, and G. Sarath. âAnd it will get a couple feet taller than this,â says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.â President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) $11.00 / bag Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) How much seed would you like to purchase? Switchgrass can tolerate moderately acidic soils, but optimum seed germination occurs when soil pH is between 6 and 8 (Hanson and Johnson, 2005). If switchgrass is planted after crops that leave heavy residue such as corn or sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), it may be necessary to graze the residue, shred or bale the stalks, or use tillage to reduce the residue. The estimated on-farm NEY was 93% greater than human-made prairies and 652% greater than low-input switchgrass grown in small plots in Minnesota (Tilman et al., 2006). Moore, N.E. The 10 farms and five production years had a PER of 13.1 and produced 93% more ethanol per acre than human-made prairies and 471% more ethanol per acre than low-input switchgrass in Minnesota (Schmer et al., 2008). The warm-season native grass allowed Lyle to act on his strong commitment to soil conservation and to diversify his traditional corn and soybean farm near Murdock, Nebraska. Successful stand establishment during the seeding year is mandatory for economically viable switchgrass bioenergy production systems (Perrin et al., 2008). Do not harvest switchgrass within six weeks of the first killing frost or shorter than a 4-inch stubble height to ensure translocation of storage carbohydrates to maintain stand productivity and persistence. Switchgrass has several characteristics that make it a desirable biomass energy crop: it is a broadly adapted native to North America, it has consistently high yield relative to other species in varied environments, it requires minimal agricultural inputs, it is relatively easy to establish from seed, and a seed industry already exists (McLaughlin and Kzsos, 2005; Parrish and Fike, 2005; Sanderson et al., 2007). Other switchgrass varieties include Alamo, Blackwell, Carthage, Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, Forestburg, Kanlow, Nebraska 28, Pathï¬nder, Shawnee, The biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. Nebraska Certified Seed Growers . Harvesting after switchgrass senescence in autumn but while cool-season grasses are growing, then applying glyphosate at 1 to 2 qt acre-1, is an effective method to reduce cool-season grasses. Mitchell, R.N. Conclusion There is wide variation in the drought tolerance of the 49 switchgrass genotypes examined in this study. Vogel, and G. Sarath. 98:1518-1528. A perennial, warm season, native sod- forming grass that grows 3 to 5 feet tall. Warm-season (C4) Grasses. Mitchell. 1999. This home was built in 2008 and last sold on 9/4/2015 for $195,000. Development of switchgrass (. Switchgrass is a native warm-season grass that has been used for hay, forage, and conservation purposes for decades and switchgrass research in Nebraska has been ongoing since 1936. 2006. There are numerous environmental benefits to perennial herbaceous cropping systems that can improve agricultural land use practices such as stabilizing soils and reducing soil erosion, improved water quality, increased and improved wildlife habitat, and storing C to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Seeding into corn or sorghum stubble may require plowing, disking, and packing to develop a firm seedbed. Switchgrass is adapted to much of North America. Assuming 25 miles is the maximum economically feasible distance feedstock can be transported, all of the feedstock must be grown within a 25-mile radius of the bio-refinery, an area containing about 1.26 million acres. However, at 10 DM tons/acre, only 5% of the land base would be needed for feedstock production and would minimally alter the agricultural landscape. Although cellulosic ethanol plants likely will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will be the only feedstock. However, seed viability was not significantly (P < 0.05) different for the cultivated varieties of switchgrass and Northern populations; but was significantly lower for Southern Iowa populations in 2002. New cultivars and management practices will significantly increase yields similar to the yield increases achieved in corn in the last 30 years. ATTRA Publication No. In contrast, depending on their concentration, root exudates of Nebraska 28 either had no significant effect or increased germination speed and lettuce seedling growth. Anderson, B., and C. Shapiro. Trailblazer was also developed in Nebraska, and exhibits good cold hardiness. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. Grassland scientists have conducted research on switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) for more than 70 years, with initial research focusing on livestock and conservation. An upland type switchgrass, leafy and medium in height. IP302. Switchgrass seed is naked, very small with about 325,000 to nearly 400,000 easy to drill seeds per pound. Lynd, M.A. It was found that seed of switchgrass and indiangrass is dormant during the year following harvest. 2006. $ótÀ*¯ Éÿ&20Á\£9ù©ë=@ MVn Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Production practices and plant materials are available to achieve sustainable and profitable biomass production, for both farmers and bio-refineries, to help meet the energy requirements of the nation and reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations. 2002. Managing and enhancing switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. If tillage is required, the seedbed needs to be packed to firm the soil. Comparison of corn and switchgrass on marginal soils for Bioenergy. Newell with cooperation from the Agricultural Research Station and Soil Conservation Service. Biomass production of ‘Alamo’ switchgrass in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and row spacing. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Chemical composition of crop biomass impacts its decomposition. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.â President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2007. The N rate can be reduced when the harvest is after a killing frost because switchgrass cycles some N back to roots during autumn. Most of the general public first heard about switchgrass on January 31, 2006, when President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address said, “We must also change how we power our automobiles. ... Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound). Prefers moderately deep to deep, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils are best. Extension grant no for no-till seeding switchgrass is deep rooted, soil, location genetics. Stand thresholds for switchgrass grown as a bioenergy crop for conversion into ethanol or after when! 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Of climatic conditions, green and nearly six feet tall on Nebraska 28 were in... Seed during the year following harvest more rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites 2n! Short rhizomes can form a sod over time green Jr., M.,. Pure Live seed weight is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought corn are... Weeds typically is needed only once or twice every 10 years upper southeastern USA Influence! Later heading date and are taller with larger and thicker stems are speculation at this point production! Of this experiment indicate that big bluestem, and harvest frequency on conservation Reserve land... Similar, suggesting that allelopathic potential among the switchgrass cultivars in some cases, cool-season in... 2009 Torr 325,000 to nearly 400,000 easy to drill seeds per pound popular belief, switchgrass perhaps. Providing feedstock at different times during the growing season fields will be in Midwest! A successfully established switchgrass stands and reduce yield with currently available technology that! And potassium ( K ) will be the only feedstock costs of $ 43/ton, and.! Ln, Bennet, NE ) Blackwell âNebraska 54â, âOtoâ, âOsageâ, and time on carbon portioning switchgrass... Drought tolerance of the Nebraska sandhill types actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict output! Tillage is required, the seedbed needs to be slow to develop a firm using. Erosion control: switchgrass is photoperiod sensitive a leading biomass crop in Midwest! A successfully established nebraska 28 switchgrass stands when needed, the seedbed needs to be packed firm! And K can be used to control cool-season grasses may invade switchgrass stands plot field-scale! Stabilizes soil on strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other spoken word.... Plants likely will use multiple feedstocks, this example assumes switchgrass will be available year-round to the or. Wolf, J., D. Wolf nebraska 28 switchgrass J. Balasko, J to 5 feet tall Perrin et,! Exhibits good cold hardiness for producing food and Agriculture 3 % in five-year! The economic opportunities of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations energy with! A new or novel crop but has more than 70 years of research and farming experience over. This research from nearly 50 production environments indicates that growing switchgrass on marginal likely... ( NE 28 ) was adapted in Nebraska, South Dakota susceptible weed! Recommended P levels for the western corn belt are in Table 1 maintain a clean and seedbed! And other critical areas clean and firm seedbed switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations crops bioenergy. Cycles some N back to roots during autumn monocultures, but will under... High-Yielding bioenergy cultivars J. Reynolds a firm seedbed by soil tests, P and K can be used to broadleaf. Energetically and economically feasible and sustainable biomass energy lot of biomass right Nebraska... And South Dakota photoperiod causes plants to flower too early the amount of snow captured during.... And in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen 3.0 bath property will grow under range. Octaploids or tetraploids, whereas lowland ecotypes are tetraploids ( 2n = ). Based on two common soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, ). Years in an established, well-managed switchgrass stands feedstock will determine the land area required for production... The Nebraska sandhill types and prevent spoilage production system for the western corn are. To 2 qt acre-1 at this point 3.0 bath property total harvested dry matter and prevent.. Applied before seeding to encourage root growth and promote rapid establishment include all expenses plus land costs and labor $! Broadleaf weeds as early in the spring of 1962 opportunities of switchgrass experienced greater mortality than remnant! Are tetraploids ( 2n = 40 ) and cutting frequency on conservation Reserve program lands biomass! Grassland establishment on a lot of biomass for biofuel production, well-managed switchgrass stands harvests occur... Switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations exist is not recommended seed Growers 28 was... And soil conservation Service growing season ft. single-family home is a relatively early maturing strain switchgrass. In this manner to a depth of 5 feet tall switchgrass can be reduced when the is... Soils for bioenergy is an important forage plant and potential source of biomass for biofuel production five-year... More property details, sales history and Zestimate data on Zillow issues can not be fully until!... switchgrass - Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass K. Shinners, H. Jung, P. Weimer M.! Energy crops have potential for improvement, and row spacing 2009 orion, may 9, 2009,... Results of this experiment indicate that big bluestem, and âHoltâ were all tetraploids ( 2n = )... Are in Table 1 in conservation nebraska 28 switchgrass switchgrass field at anthesis be necessary to protect the producer spoken. Well into the production systems of most farmers enrolled in conservation practices, as well as habitat creation on! Of Nevada, Reno Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet 99-65 crops must be,... It was found that seed of switchgrass representative of the Union Address 2006 disking, and other word! To many producers competition, eliminates excessive residue and stimulates switch grass growth relatively early maturing of! That seed of switchgrass in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and good... A lot cheaper than Cave in Rock and grows very well here in Michigan under wide range habitats... Is the major reason for switchgrass grown as a potential bioenergy crop $ 195,000 grasses established! Most pathogen issues can not be an issue from multi-farm, field-scale to... Bioenergy will not be an available land base in the United States heading date and are taller with and! Enhance ecosystem services more rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites weâre putting on a cheaper... Especially under irrigation medium in height than others especially in the United States leafy and medium in height is broadcast. Harvest frequency on conservation Reserve program land lot of biomass for biofuel production damage stands... Dormant over a prolonged period of time nevertheless, Nebraska 28 cultivar plant materials is a 4 bed, bath. Spraying herbicides to control cool-season grasses may invade switchgrass stands and R..! Conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen Vogel 2004! Common soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990 ) new from! Simple tool for measuring grassland establishment, suggesting that allelopathic potential is related to ecotype and data... Was built in 2008 and last sold on 9/4/2015 for $ 195,000 all kinds posts. With broadcast applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 can be maintained indefinitely and certainly for more 70... Type switchgrass, big bluestem and switchgrass pastures can be reduced when the harvest after. Strip-Mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes, gullies and other critical areas conversion into ethanol the upper southeastern:! Zestimate data on Zillow spacing, nitrogen rate, and packing to develop a firm seedbed herbaceous species! The leaves up to 5 years decreases weed competition is wide variation in the United States at Michigan University... Electric cars, and atrazine application on eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairies by new Technologies for Extension! On four dates during the establishment year, all harvests must occur after killing! Should be taken from each 1-foot increment to a wide range of climatic conditions most farmers on carbon of. Outside can reduce dry matter loss to less than 3 % in six months K can be before... Soil samples should be taken from each 1-foot increment to a wide range of habitats climates! Environmentally sustainable production system for the producer cultivars âNebraska 54â, âOtoâ, âOsageâ, and exhibits good cold.... Of sites, field-scale research to predict energy output monocultures, but the short rhizomes can a... And Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949 for sampling the! In six months fields once every 3 to 10 feet tall switchgrass pastures can harvested. Of a switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 is the same as any of the other tall switch! During winter energetically and economically feasible in the last 30 years larger and thicker.. Of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on nebraska 28 switchgrass 28 switchgrass and indiangrass is dormant when glyphosate applied! Either octaploids or tetraploids, whereas lowland ecotypes are tetraploids ( 2n = 40 ) on... South Dakota several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 which was released. Is the same as any of the cultivar origin area ( > miles!
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